Vitamins & Minerals

vitamins & minerals

The essential vitamins and minerals share a delicate dance in the body. For many body processes to function optimally, you must have the right balance of the nutrients. Many nutrients work synergistically, so a deficiency in one might appear as or exacerbate a deficiency in another and vice versa.

Other nutrients are antagonists, so care must be taken when supplementing with one so it does not negatively impact the absorption, uptake, or metabolism of the other. For some nutrient pairs, the balance is delicate, with the pairs in certain situations enhancing the work of the other, and in other situations, they antagonize one another.

The following is a overview of the relationships and interactions between the essential nutrients. As you will see, some vitamins and minerals have a relationship with several other essential nutrients, while some have few if any known synergistic or antagonistic interactions.

VITAMINS

 

Vitamin A

 

Synergistic Nutrients:

 

Vitamin E

Vitamin E enhances vitamin A intestinal absorption at medium to high concentrations, up to 40 percent.

Vitamin A and E together lead to increased antioxidant capabilities, protect against some forms of cancer, and support a healthier gut.

They work synergistically to prevent or support obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, immune response, brain health, hearing loss.

Iodine

Retinoic acid is involved in iodine uptake.

Severe vitamin A deficiency decreases the uptake of iodine and impacts thyroid metabolism.

Iodine deficiency and vitamin A deficiency leads to a more severe case of primary hypothyroidism compared to iodine deficiency alone.

Iron

Iron is required for converting beta-carotene into retinol.

Vitamin A increases iron absorption, especially non-hem iron.

Iron increases the bioavailability of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, including alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-kryptoxanthin.

Supplementing with vitamin A might help reverse iron deficiency anaemia in children, and vitamin A deficiency might contribute to anaemia.

Remember we usually do not have iron deficiency we have absorption problem and for that reason the best solution is liquid chlorophyll as it contains alfalfa in liquid form.

Zinc

Zinc is required for vitamin A transport.

Supplementing with vitamin A and zinc in children led to a reduced risk of infection and increased linear growth.

Zinc along with vitamin A helps maintain eye health.

Antagonistic Nutrients:

Vitamin E

High levels of beta carotene might decrease serum levels of vitamin E.

Vitamin K

Vitamin A toxicity inhibits the synthesis of vitamin K2 by intestinal bacteria and interferes with hepatic actions of vitamin K.

Vitamin A interferes with absorption of vitamin K.

 

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

 

Synergistic Nutrients

 

 Magnesium

Magnesium is required to convert thiamin to its biologically active form and is also required for certain thiamin-dependent enzymes.

Overcoming thiamin deficiency might not occur if magnesium deficiency is not co-treated.

Antagonistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 can inhibit the biosynthesis of thiamine.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

 

Antagonistic Nutrients:

 

Calcium

Calcium might form a chelate with riboflavin, decreasing riboflavin absorption.

Calcium needs magnesium to absorb to get best suitable form of vitamin for you consult psychokinesiology and muscle test

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

 

Synergistic Nutrients:

 

Zinc

Supplementing with nicotinic acid might provide a dose-dependent improvement in hepatic zinc levels and better antioxidant markers, including less lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

 

Antagonistic Nutrients:

 

Copper

Copper deficiency increases vitamin B5 requirements.

 

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Synergistic Nutrients:

 

 Magnesium

Magnesium enhances the uptake of vitamin B6 and vice versa.

Co-supplementing with vitamin B6 and magnesium helps PMS symptoms and possibly autism.

Antagonistic Nutrients:

 

 Vitamin B1

Vitamin B6 can inhibit the biosynthesis of thiamine.

Vitamin B9

Vitamin B6 increases folate requirements and possibly vice versa.

Along with vitamin B12, co-supplementation with vitamins B9 and B6 improves homocysteine levels, of which high levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, thrombin generation, and neurodegeneration.

Zinc

High levels of vitamin B6 might increase the need for zinc.

Chronic and acute vitamin B6 deficiency increases intestinal uptake of zinc but serum zinc levels decrease, demonstrating an impairment in zinc utilization.

Vitamin B9 (Folate)

 

Antagonistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 increases folate requirements and possibly vice versa.

Vitamin B12

Supplementing with B9 increases the need for B12 and vice versa because both play key roles in the methylation cycle.

Deficiency or insufficiency can increase homocysteine levels, which are connected to a higher risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cardiovascular disease.

Deficiency can also cause megaloblastic anaemia.

Also good bacteria is important to b 12 absorption.

Zinc

Supplementation with folic acid, especially in a state of zinc deficiency, might reduce absorption of zinc through forming a chelate, but there are mixed results.

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

 

Antagonistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin C

In aqueous solution, vitamin C might degrade B12 especially when B1 and copper are also present.

Vitamin B9

Supplementing with B9 increases the need for B12 and vice versa because both play key roles in the methylation cycle.

Deficiency or insufficiency can increase homocysteine levels, which are connected to a higher risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cardiovascular disease.

Deficiency can also cause megaloblastic anaemia.

Vitamin C from natural source of berries

 

Synergistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin E

Vitamins C and E work synergistically for antioxidant defence, with vitamin C regenerating vitamin E.

Works in synergy, so large supplementation of one needs large supplement of other.

Copper

Post-absorptive, vitamin C can stimulate uptake and metabolism of copper.

Vitamin C deficiency could lead to symptoms of copper deficiency.

Cobber prevents zinc absorption so do not overdose. always to get best results test by muscle testing.

 

Iron

Increases absorption of non-hem iron, even in the presence of inhibitory substances; vitamin C also regulates uptake and metabolism of iron.

Selenium

A diet high in vitamin C led to increased percent of absorption of sodium selenite and retention of the absorbed selenium.

 

Antagonistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin B12

In aqueous solution, vitamin C might degrade B12, especially with B1 and copper also present.

Copper

High levels of vitamin C inhibits absorption of copper, possibly through increasing iron absorption, which is a copper antagonist.

So if you have copper overdose use Zink

Iron

Excess vitamin C could increase iron overload risk.

Selenium

Converts sodium selenite to elemental selenium which inhibits absorption but only when supplements are taken on an empty stomach.

Vitamin D

 

Synergistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin K

Optimal levels of vitamin K prevents some of the problems of excess vitamin D and leads to better outcomes.

Sufficient levels of vitamins D and K lead to reduced risk of hip fractures and an increase in BMD and other markers of bone health.

Sufficient vitamin K and D also improves insulin levels and blood pressure while reducing the risk of arthrosclerosis.

Calcium

Vitamin D increases calcium absorption.

Along with vitamin K, supplementing with calcium and vitamin D leads to improved bone, heart, and metabolic health.

Calcium and vitamin D also work synergistically for skeletal muscle function.

Co-supplementation of vitamin D and calcium led to an improved response to children with rickets.

 

Magnesium

Supplementing with vitamin D improves serum levels of magnesium especially in obese individuals.

Magnesium is a cofactor for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D.

Supplementing with magnesium improves vitamin D levels.

Deficiency in both vitamin D and magnesium increase risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic disease, and skeletal disorders.

Selenium

Supplementing with vitamin D improves serum levels of selenium.

Antagonistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin A

High levels of vitamin A decrease vitamin D uptake by 30 percent.

Vitamin E

Medium and high levels of vitamin E significantly reduce vitamin D uptake by 15 percent and 17 percent respectively.

Vitamin E

Synergistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin A

Vitamin E enhances vitamin A intestinal absorption at medium to high concentrations, up to 40 percent.

Vitamin A and E together lead to increased antioxidant capabilities, protect against some forms of cancer, and support a healthier gut.

They work synergistically to prevent or support obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, immune response, brain health, hearing loss.

 

Vitamin C

Vitamins C and E work synergistically as antioxidant defence, with vitamin C regenerating vitamin E.

Because they work synergistically, large supplementation of one needs large supplementation of other.

Selenium

Selenium deficiency aggravates effects of deficiency of vitamin E and vitamin E can prevent selenium toxicity.

Together they induce apoptosis.

Combined selenium and vitamin E deficiency has a great impact that the deficiency of one of the nutrients.

Synergy of vitamin E and selenium might help with cancer prevention through stimulating apoptosis in abnormal cells; selenium and vitamin E work synergistically to help mitigate iron excess.

Zinc

Some effects of zinc deficiency were helped by vitamin E supplementation.

Antagonistic Nutrients

Vitamin A

Vitamin A reduces vitamin E intestinal uptake in a dose-dependent manner.

High levels of beta carotene might decrease serum levels of vitamin E.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D reduces vitamin E intestinal uptake in a dose-dependent manner.

Vitamin K

Metabolites can inhibit vitamin K activity, so care is needed when supplementing with high doses.

Also, large doses of vitamin K inhibit intestinal absorption of vitamin E.

Iron

Iron interferes with absorption of vitamin E.

Vitamin E deficiency exacerbates iron excess but supplemental vitamin E prevented it.

It is best to take the supplements at separate times.

Vitamin K

 

Synergistic Nutrients:

 

 Vitamin D

Optimal levels of vitamin K prevents some of the problems of excess vitamin D and leads to better outcomes.

Sufficient levels of vitamins D and K lead to reduced risk of hip fractures and an increase in BMD and other markers of bone health.

It also improves insulin levels, blood pressure, and reduces the risk of arthrosclerosis.

Calcium

Along with vitamin D, vitamin K and calcium help to improve bone and heart health.

 

 Antagonistic Nutrients

Vitamin A

Vitamin A toxicity inhibits synthesis of vitamin K2 by intestinal bacteria and interferes with hepatic actions of vitamin K.

Vitamin A inhibits intestinal absorption of vitamin K.

Vitamin D

Inhibits intestinal absorption of vitamin K.

Vitamin E

Metabolites can inhibit vitamin K activity, so care is needed when taking large doses.

Vitamin E can also inhibit the intestinal absorption of vitamin K.

MACROMINERALS 

 

Calcium

Synergistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin D

Vitamin D increases calcium absorption.

Along with vitamin K, supplementing with calcium and vitamin D leads to improved bone, heart, and metabolic health.

Calcium and vitamin D also work synergistically for skeletal muscle function.

Co-supplementation of vitamin D and calcium led to an improved response to children with rickets.

Potassium

Potassium enhances calcium reabsorption.

Potassium excretion is positively related to bone mineral density.

Antagonistic Nutrients

Iron

High levels of calcium decrease absorption of non-hem iron in the short term but might not have a long-term impact on iron levels; this can be mitigated by vitamin C.

Supplementing with calcium and iron greatly reduced serum levels of zinc.

Magnesium

High levels of calcium decreased tissue levels of magnesium and exacerbates deficiency and decreases magnesium absorption.

Magnesium supplementation can decrease calcium absorption, especially in those with renal stone disease.

Manganese

Manganese and calcium compete for absorption and display similar properties.

Phosphorus

High levels of calcium supplements decrease phosphorus absorption.

The ideal ratio of phosphorus to calcium is 1:1. Higher levels of phosphorus to calcium ratio was shown to hurt bone health in pigs and humans.

Sodium

Excess sodium enhances calcium excretion.

High sodium increases bone turnover and reduces BMD.

Zinc

High levels of calcium supplements decrease zinc absorption and zinc balance.

High levels of zinc might impact calcium absorption.

Zinc deficiency reduces serum calcium levels and calcium entry into cells, and it increases PTH levels.

Supplementing with calcium and iron greatly reduced serum levels of zinc.

Magnesium

Synergistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin B1

Magnesium is required to convert thiamine to its biologically active form and is also required for certain thiamine-dependent enzymes.

Overcoming thiamine deficiency might not occur if magnesium deficiency is not co-treated.

Vitamin B6

Magnesium enhances the uptake of vitamin B6 and vice versa.

Co-supplementing with vitamin B6 and magnesium helps PMS symptoms and possibly autism.

Vitamin D

Supplementing with vitamin D improves serum levels of magnesium especially in obese individuals.

Magnesium is a cofactor for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D.

Supplementing with magnesium improves vitamin D levels.

Deficiency in both vitamin D and magnesium increase risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic disease, and skeletal disorders.

Potassium

Magnesium is required for potassium uptake in cells.

Combination of magnesium, calcium, and potassium reduces the risk of stroke.

Antagonistic Nutrients

Calcium

High levels of calcium decreased tissue levels of magnesium and exacerbates deficiency and decreases magnesium absorption.

Magnesium supplementation can decrease calcium absorption, especially in those with renal stone disease.

Zinc

Supplements of high levels (142 mg/day) of zinc might reduce magnesium absorption.

Phosphorus

Along with calcium, phosphorus can reduce the absorption of magnesium in the intestines.

Phosphorus

Antagonistic Nutrients

Calcium

High levels of calcium supplements decrease phosphorus absorption.

The ideal ratio of phosphorus to calcium is 1:1; higher levels of the phosphorus to calcium ratio was shown to hurt bone health in pigs and humans.

Magnesium

Along with calcium, phosphorus can reduce the absorption of magnesium in the intestines.

Potassium

Synergistic Nutrients

Calcium

Potassium enhances calcium reabsorption.

Potassium excretion is positively related to bone mineral density.

Magnesium

Magnesium is required for potassium uptake in cells.

Combination of magnesium, calcium, and potassium reduces the risk of stroke.

Sodium

Potassium/Sodium balance required for optimal health, especially for reduced blood pressure and heart health.

The right potassium to sodium balance increases bone health through decreasing excess excretion of calcium due to high levels of sodium.

It also decreases obesity load and improves net dietary acid load.

Sodium

Synergistic Nutrients

 Potassium

Potassium/Sodium balance required for optimal health, especially for reduced blood pressure and heart health.

The right potassium to sodium balance increases bone health through decreasing excess excretion of calcium due to high levels of sodium.

It also decreases obesity load and improves net dietary acid load.

 Antagonistic Nutrients

 Calcium

Excess sodium enhances calcium excretion.

High sodium increases bone turnover and reduces bone mineral density.

TRACE MINERALS

Copper

Synergistic Nutrients

 Vitamin C

Post-absorptive, vitamin C can stimulate uptake and metabolism of copper.

Vitamin C deficiency could lead to symptoms of copper deficiency.

Antagonistic Nutrients

Vitamin C

High levels of vitamin C inhibits absorption of copper, possibly through increasing iron absorption, which is a copper antagonist.

Iron

Copper and iron compete for absorption, so high levels of one might lead to deficiency of the other.

Molybdenum

Molybdenum interacts with protein-bound copper in and outside the cells and can even remove copper from the tissues, so excess molybdenum contributes to copper deficiency.

Molybdenum can also be used to treat problems associated with excess levels of copper, such as Wilson’s disease.

The antagonistic relationship between copper and molybdenum might contribute to diabetic complications.

Selenium

When consuming low to normal levels of selenium, high intakes of copper reduces absorption, although this might not occur when consuming high levels of selenium.

An imbalance of selenium and copper ratio could contribute to oxidative stress.

Zinc

Zinc inhibits copper absorption and can lead to a deficiency.

A high copper to zinc ratio increases oxidative stress, all-cause mortality, inflammation, immune dysfunction, sleep disturbances, AD, heart failure, physical disability, diabetes, and autism.

Iodine

Synergistic Nutrients

 Vitamin A

Retinoic acid is involved in iodine uptake.

Severe vitamin A deficiency decreases the uptake of iodine and impacts thyroid metabolism.

Iodine deficiency and vitamin A deficiency leads to a more severe case of primary hypothyroidism compared to iodine deficiency alone.

Selenium

Adequate levels of both iodine and selenium are necessary for the metabolism of thyroid hormone. Selenium is required for the enzyme that deiodinases T4 to convert it to the active form, T3.

Concurrent iodine and selenium deficiencies might create a balancing effect to maintain and normalize T4 levels while T4 levels were lowered when there was a deficiency of iodine or selenium

Iron

Synergistic Nutrients

Vitamin A

Iron is required for converting beta carotene into retinol.

Vitamin A increases iron absorption, especially non-hem iron.

Iron increases the bioavailability of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, including alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-kryptoxanthin.

Supplementing with vitamin A might help reverse iron deficiency anaemia in children but vitamin A deficiency might contribute to anaemia.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C increases absorption of non-hem iron, even in the presence of inhibitory substances; vitamin C also regulates uptake and metabolism of iron.

Antagonistic Nutrients

 

Vitamin E

Iron interferes with absorption of vitamin E.

Vitamin E deficiency exacerbates iron excess but supplemental vitamin E prevented it.

It is best to take the supplements at separate times.

Calcium

High levels of calcium decrease absorption of non-hem iron in the short term but might not have a long-term impact on iron levels; this can be mitigated by vitamin C.

Supplementing with calcium and iron greatly reduced serum levels of zinc.

Copper

Copper and iron compete for absorption, so high levels of one might lead to deficiency of the other.

Manganese

High levels of manganese inhibits iron absorption and uptake in a dose-dependent manner and vice versa due to shared pathways of absorption and similar physiochemical properties.

Zinc

Non-hem iron and zinc compete for absorption.

Supplementing with calcium and iron greatly reduced serum levels of zinc.

Manganese

Antagonistic Nutrients

Iron

High levels of manganese inhibits iron absorption and uptake in a dose-dependent manner and vice versa due to shared pathways of absorption and similar physiochemical properties.

Calcium

Manganese and calcium compete for absorption and display similar properties.

Molybdenum

 

Antagonistic Nutrients

 

Copper

Molybdenum interacts with protein-bound copper in and outside the cells and can even remove copper from the tissues, so excess molybdenum contributes to copper deficiency.

Molybdenum can also be used to treat problems associated with excess levels of copper, such as Wilson’s disease.

The antagonistic relationship between copper and molybdenum might contribute to diabetic complications.

Selenium

Synergistic Nutrients

Vitamin C

A diet high in vitamin C led to increased percent of absorption of sodium selenite and retention of the absorbed selenium.

 

Vitamin D

Supplementing with vitamin D improves serum levels of selenium.

Vitamin E

Selenium deficiency aggravates effects of deficiency of vitamin E and vitamin E can prevent selenium toxicity.

Together they induce apoptosis.

Combined selenium and vitamin E deficiency has a great impact that the deficiency of one of the nutrients.

Synergy of vitamin E and selenium might help with cancer prevention through stimulating apoptosis in abnormal cells; selenium and vitamin E work synergistically to help mitigate iron excess.

Iodine

Adequate levels of both iodine and selenium are necessary for the metabolism of thyroid hormone. Selenium is required for the enzyme that deiodinases T3 to convert it to the active form, T4.

Concurrent iodine and selenium deficiencies might create a balancing effect to maintain and normalize T4 levels while T4 levels were lowered when there was a deficiency of iodine or selenium.

Antagonistic Nutrients

Vitamin C

Vitamin C converts sodium selenite to elemental selenium which inhibits absorption but only when supplements are taken on an empty stomach.

 

Copper

When consuming low to normal levels of selenium, high intakes of copper reduces absorption, although this might not occur when consuming high levels of selenium.

An imbalance of selenium and copper ratio could contribute to oxidative stress.

Zinc

Synergistic Nutrients

Vitamin A

Zinc is required for vitamin A transport.

In one study, supplementing with vitamin A and zinc in children led to a reduced risk of infection and increased linear growth.

Zinc along with vitamin A helps maintain eye health.

Vitamin B3

Supplementing with nicotinic acid might provide a dose-dependent improvement in hepatic zinc levels and better antioxidant markers, including less lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels.

 Antagonistic Nutrients

 Vitamin B6

High levels of B6 might increase the need for zinc.

Chronic and acute B6 deficiency increases intestinal uptake of zinc but serum zinc levels decrease, demonstrating an impairment in zinc utilization.

Vitamin B9

Supplementation with folic acid, especially in a state of zinc deficiency, might reduce absorption of zinc through forming a chelate, but there are mixed results.

Calcium

High levels of calcium supplements decrease zinc absorption and zinc balance.

High levels of zinc might impact calcium absorption.

Zinc deficiency reduces serum calcium levels and calcium entry into cells, and it increases parathyroid hormone levels.

Supplementing with calcium and iron greatly reduced serum levels of zinc.

Copper

Copper inhibits zinc absorption and can lead to a deficiency.

A high copper to zinc ratio increases risk of oxidative stress, all-cause mortality, inflammation, immune dysfunction, sleep disturbances, AD, heart failure, physical disability, diabetes, and autism.

Iron

Non-hem iron and zinc compete for absorption.

Supplementing with calcium and iron greatly reduced serum levels of zinc.

Magnesium

Supplements of high levels (i.e. 142 mg/day) of zinc might reduce magnesium absorption.

As you can see, many of the minerals compete with one another for absorption, making it important to ensure proper balance so that one does not overpower the others, contributing to a deficiency.

 

SPECIAL GROUP INTERACTIONS

Antioxidant Network

Zinc, selenium, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

Balanced and sufficient quantities keep antioxidant enzymes and other antioxidant defences high to mitigate oxidative stress, which is connected to numerous diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and metabolic syndrome.

Along with magnesium, antioxidant vitamins can also help to protect against hearing loss and reduce inflammation.

B-vitamins

The B-vitamins often work together, especially vitamins B2, B6, B9, B12.

In addition to the above one-on-one interactions, the B vitamins work together and play key role as cofactors and enzymes in one-carbon metabolism, which is involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA methylation, as well as production of SAM, which is a methyl donor used in various reactions including neurotransmitter production. These cofactors and enzymes are also involved in energy metabolism.

A balance of B vitamins supports brain health, including neural development and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cardiovascular health.

As always, check with your Complementary healthcare practitioner to see which vitamins and minerals you may need and how best to take them.

Source of information: https://www.deannaminich.com/vitamin-and-mineral-interactions-the-complex-relationship-of-essential-nutrients/

10/10
X