Skin and personal care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. They can include nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure and appropriate use of emollients.
Practices that enhance appearance include the use of cosmetics, botulinum, exfoliation, fillers, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, peels, retinol therapy and ultrasonic skin treatment.
Skin care is a routine daily procedure in many settings, such as skin that is either too dry or too moist, and prevention of dermatitis and prevention of skin injuries.
Guidelines for neonatal skin care have been developed. Nevertheless, the pediatric and dermatologic communities have not reached consensus on best cleansing practices, as good quality scientific evidence is scarce.
Immersion in water seems superior to washing alone, and use of synthetic detergents or mild liquid baby cleansers seems comparable or superior to water alone.
Sun protection is an important aspect of skin care. Though the sun is beneficial in order for the human body to get its daily dose of vitamin D, unprotected excessive sunlight can cause extreme damage to the skin.
Ultraviolet (UVA and UVB) radiation in the sun’s rays can cause sunburn in varying degrees, early ageing and increased risk of skin cancer. UV exposure can cause patches of uneven skin tone and dry out the skin.
Skin ageing is associated with increased vulnerability. Skin problems including pruritus are common in the elderly but are often inadequately addressed.
A literature review of studies that assessed maintenance of skin integrity in the elderly found most to be low levels of evidence but the review concluded that skin-cleansing with synthetic detergents or amphoteric surfactants induced less skin dryness than using soap and water.
Moisturizers with humectants helped with skin dryness, and skin barrier occlusives reduced skin injuries.
According to the American Academy of Dermatology, between 40 and 50 million Americans suffer from acne each year.
While many associate acne with adolescence, acne can occur at any age, with its causes including heredity, hormones, menstruation, food, and emotional stress.
Pressure sores are injuries to skin and underlying tissue as a result of prolonged pressure on the skin. A known example of pressure sore is bedsore called pressure ulcer.
When cleaning the stoma area, plain warm water should be use and dry wipe to gently clean around the stoma.
Pat gently and make sure not to rub the area. Put all used wipes in a disposable bag and wash your hands after.
Wound healing is a complex and fragile process in which the skin repairs itself after injury. It is susceptible to interruption or failure that creates non-healing chronic wounds.
Radiation induces skin reactions in the treated area, particularly in the axilla, head and neck, perineum and skin fold regions.
Formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties are often used, but no preferred approach or individual product has been identified as best practice for your Skin and personal care.
Soft silicone dressings that act as barriers to friction may be helpful. In breast cancer, calendula cream may reduce the severity of radiation effects on the dark spot corrector.
Deodorant use after completing radiation treatment has been controversial but is now recommended for practice.
Cosmeceuticals are topically-applied, combination products that bring together cosmetics and “biologically active ingredients”.
Products which are similar in perceived benefits but ingested orally are known as nutricosmetics.
According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act “does not recognize any such category as “cosmeceuticals.”
A product can be a drug, a cosmetic, or a combination of both, but the term “cosmeceutical” has no meaning under the law”.
Drugs are subject to an intensive review and approval process by FDA. Cosmetics, and these related products, although regulated, are not approved by FDA prior to sale.
Personal care or toiletries are consumer products used in personal hygiene and for beautification.
Personal care includes products as diverse as cleansing pads, colognes, cotton swabs, cotton pads, deodorant, eye liner, facial tissue, hair clippers, lip gloss, lipstick, lip balm, lotion, makeup, hand soap, facial cleanser, body wash, nail files, pomade, perfumes, razors, shaving cream, moisturizer, baby powder, toilet paper, toothpaste, facial treatments, wet wipes, and shampoo.